Category: Blog

Dental Blogs for Patients

October 7, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

What’s Good for Your Teeth is Good For Your Body: Why Dental Cleanings and Exams Matter

Understanding the Importance of Dental Cleanings & Exams

Clean teeth make for a pretty smile, but surely, they’re not important for your overall health, right? Well, if you read the title of this article, you might suspect the truth — they are!

The American Dental Association (ADA) recommends visiting the dentist every six months for an exam and a cleaning. Why is this the case?

Bad Teeth Means Poor Health

To be clear, when we say “bad teeth,” we mean teeth that are unhealthy. Slightly crooked teeth aren’t necessarily unhealthy, but cavity-ridden teeth are.

Poor oral health can lead to a host of problems such as:

  • Cardiovascular Disease: Heart disease, strokes, and clogged arteries can be aggravated by the bacteria in your mouth.
  • Respiratory Infections: Bacteria from swollen gums and teeth can make their way to the lungs and then the bloodstream, leading to respiratory infections and even pneumonia.
  • Pregnancy Complications: Low birth weight and premature birth have been linked to periodontitis.
  • Endocarditis: Germs from your mouth can spread through your bloodstream to the lining of your heart.

In addition, poor mouth hygiene can be aggravated by conditions such as diabetes, HIV/AIDS, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer’s.

I’m Convinced! What Exactly Are Dental Exams?

At a dental exam, your dentist or dental hygienist will examine your mouth for any signs of problems or abnormalities. This may involve X-rays to look under the surface for any issues with your roots or jaw.

Catching things like infections and cavities early keeps you from experiencing more severe complications down the road.

There are a few specific things that dentists may do during your exam:

  • Assess your risk of tooth decay or disease
  • Check your bite alignment
  • Eliminate stains or other deposits
  • Show you how to properly clean your teeth

Your dentist or hygienist may also ask questions directly related to your tooth health, including questions about your diet, medications, and overall health.

What Are Dental Cleanings?

During a dental cleaning, the dentist or hygienist will remove built-up plaque and tartar from your teeth and around your gum line. They’ll use a small mirror and tools to physically remove the unwanted substances.

This process is followed by gritty toothpaste and an electric, high-powered brush. Usually, you can choose your flavor, too! The toothpaste is abrasive, so this particular brushing needs to happen only twice a year.

Then comes the flossing. This gets rid of any deposits between the teeth that can lead to problems, as well as any leftover plaque and toothpaste from the previous steps.

Finally, you can rinse.

Dental Cleanings and Exams at Your Friendly Shelby Township Dentist

If it’s been a while since you’ve been to the dentist for your cleaning, then it’s time to visit Dr. Timothy Roney DDS & Associates. We make the cleaning process as quick and pleasant as possible.

For a cleaning that will leave you with shiny, sparkling teeth and an exam that will identify problems before they get worse, contact us right away!

September 30, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Want a Movie Star Smile? Time for Teeth Whitening!

Learn How Teeth Whitening Can Help Create a Stunning Smile

Shing! A good teeth whitening service can turn a yellowed grin into a smile of pearl. It’s a popular process, and the results can be stunning.

Ready for a Hollywood smile? Read on to find out whether teeth whitening is for you.

Why Get Teeth Whitening?

Teeth whitening isn’t just for the vain or wealthy, either. Severe discolorations of teeth can truly impact self-confidence for some people.

A discolored tooth isn’t necessarily an unhealthy tooth and whitening won’t fix a tooth that’s in need of a filling or other repair. But anyone who wants to feel confident when they grin can benefit from teeth whitening. With modern solutions, it’s more affordable than it’s ever been before!

How Does Teeth Whitening Work?

With a teeth whitening treatment, peroxides deliver oxygen molecules that break apart the chemical bonds that make up the stains in your teeth. Fluoride keeps the peroxide from compromising the integrity of your teeth and works to reduce sensitivity after the procedure.

Teeth whitening treatments are usually quick and minimally invasive, making it easy to get that bright smile you’ve been looking for!

Where Do Teeth Discolorations Come From?

There are two typical causes for tooth discoloration:

  • Extrinsic Discolorations: These are caused by external sources, such as smoking or drinking wine or coffee. Extrinsic stains only affect the surface of your teeth.
  • Intrinsic Discolorations: These are stains that come from the inside out. Medications, trauma, disease, or just plain aging can lead to intrinsically discolored teeth.

Teeth whitening treatments primarily deal with extrinsic discolorations.

Can I Do It Myself?

While there are lots of kits that claim to whiten teeth on the market, home teeth whitening kits just don’t do as thorough of a job as professional teeth whitening procedures.

With professional whitening you get:

  • Dental Supervision: Your dentist will be familiar with the procedure and make sure your teeth are healthy enough for whitening.
  • The Strong Stuff: Over-the-counter home whitening kits don’t have the same whitening power as what dentists use.
  • Quicker Results: The whitening process is immediately noticeable rather than delayed by days or weeks.

Home teeth whitening may work on some extrinsic discolorations, but they will be ineffective against intrinsic discolorations.

Is Teeth Whitening Permanent?

No, unfortunately, no whitening treatments are permanent. Professional teeth whitening can last anywhere from six months to three years, with one year being typical. Because you still have to use your teeth, they will get re-stained over time. At that point, you can have them whitened again.

Trust Your Teeth Whitening to an Experienced Dentist

The team at Dr. Timothy Roney DDS & Associates has the knowledge and expertise to get you that movie star smile you’ve always wanted.

Our cosmetic dentistry procedures, including teeth whitening, can give you the self-confidence you’ve always wanted from your smile.

Don’t get stuck with discolored teeth that make you hide your mouth. If you’re ready to experience the delight of a motion picture-worthy grin, contact your trusted Shelby Township dentist today.

September 17, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Find a Family Dentist Worthy of Your Family

Recommended Criteria for When Looking for a New Family Dentist

You don’t want to trust your family’s teeth to just anybody. Choosing a family dentist often involves spending a lot of time on Google or Yelp, reading through reviews, asking friends and family — and then moving to a town with better dentists.

Okay, maybe not that last one! You can find a great dentist near you if you just look for the right criteria.

Great Communication

A family dentist should communicate well. They don’t have to be Toastmasters, but they should be able to clearly explain procedures and processes with a good bedside manner.

Compassion and knowledge aren’t mutually exclusive. If a dentist uses a lot of technical dental jargon or makes you feel guilty for needing care, then look elsewhere.

They Stay on Top of the Latest Tech

Oral hygiene has changed a lot over the years, and your dentist should keep pace. Tools and techniques are constantly evolving. If your dentist isn’t familiar with the latest innovations that make dental care comfortable and pain-free, you may want to reschedule your root canal!

Check out reviews from past patients about the care they received and make sure it’s in line with current industry standards. There’s no reason to accept old methods that have been exchanged for better ones.

Solid Qualifications

Find out where the dentist graduated from and what certifications they have. Dentists specialize in different areas. Perhaps you and your family will need help from a dentist with a particular discipline.

What Services Do They Offer?

General dentistry might be all you need. But… what if you need teeth whitening? Or emergency dentistry? A solid family dentist should be able to provide effective care for a variety of needs. They should be able to work with patients of different ages, too.

If they can’t provide the services you desire, at the very least, they should be able to give you an effective referral for specialty services.

Can They Take Your Insurance?

Having good dental insurance won’t mean much if your dentist doesn’t accept your coverage. Talk to your insurance provider or employer to find out which dental procedures are covered and then find a family dentist who takes that insurance.

If you find a dentist you love and can’t bear the thought of going to anyone else, then find out whether they take payment plans. Even if your current insurance provider doesn’t offer dental coverage for your favorite dentist, payment plans can help to spread out the costs of your dental care.

Location, Location, Location

Choosing a family dentist sometimes comes down to, “Where do you live?” If you’re looking for the right Shelby Township dentist, talk to Dr. Timothy Roney DDS & Associates!

We do far more than general dentistry with services like cosmetic dentistry, emergency dentistry, Invisalign braces, and more. As for our communication and bedside manner? Just check out our testimonials to see what our clients say about us. Your family deserves the best — and that’s what we provide!

September 7, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Curious About Invisalign? Explore the Benefits of This Innovative Treatment!

Learn Benefits of Invisalign’s Innovative Treatment Technology

As an adult, the last thing you might want is a mouth full of metal braces, even if you suffer from crooked teeth! Fortunately, Invisalign can correct crooked teeth without the hassle of traditional metal braces.

Why Fix Crooked Teeth?

Fixing crooked teeth is more than a cosmetic change. Certain speech impediments, hygiene issues, jaw pain, and uneven grinding can each be improved with straighter teeth.

Sure, straight teeth coupled with a whitening process will give you a movie star smile, but vanity aside, they’re also more comfortable.

How Does Invisalign Work?

Instead of having metal wires in your mouth, your orthodontist will create a series of clear BPA-free braces that, over time, gently correct the position of your teeth. You can take them on and off quickly and easily, too! When you need to eat or brush your teeth, you just pop your Invisalign braces out.

Roughly every two weeks, you’ll transition to the next set of Invisalign braces. As your teeth begin to align, the clear plastic brace may start to feel a little loose. This means that your treatment is working!

It’s important to stick to the timeline set by your orthodontist, though, so your gums and jaw can get used to the new position of your teeth.

Once you’re done, you’ll have to wear a retainer part-time to keep that impressively straight smile.

What Are the Benefits of Invisalign?

There are plenty of benefits to Invisalign braces. Some of the most popular are:

  • They’re more comfortable. This is probably not a revelation, but a clear plastic aligner is better to have in your mouth than wires.
  • They’re more hygienic. Because traditional braces trap food, getting clean teeth is a chore. Invisalign braces are removable, which means it’s easy to care for your teeth.
  • Scans aren’t invasive. With metal braces, you’ll need X-rays and uncomfortable plastic cheek spreaders for dental pictures. Invisalign braces use 3D scanning technology instead.
  • It can be faster! Instead of a near two-year process for traditional braces, most Invisalign treatments only last about a year.
  • It’s a great confidence booster. Smiling with a clear plastic aligner won’t make you feel self-conscious!

Best of all, Invisalign is a time saver. You won’t have to go to the orthodontist for constant wire adjustments! The visits are shorter and more spread out with Invisalign.

Why Are Metal Braces Still a Thing, Then?

If you’re wondering why people still get metal braces, the answer is that some severe tooth issues can only be fixed by traditional braces or surgery. But if you meet Invisalign criteria, you’ll be happy to be spared a mouth full of metal on your quest for straight teeth.

How Can I Get Invisalign Braces?

If you’re ready to explore Invisalign in Shelby Township, contact Dr. Timothy Roney DDS & Associates today. We’ll help you to discuss your options and find out whether you’re a candidate so that we can get you on the path to straight, comfortable teeth!

August 19, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Finding a Good Dentist Near Me

When You Don’t Know What Dentist to Choose

Finding a good dentist can be difficult. You don’t want to get stuck with someone who is not qualified, or worse yet, one who will hurt you! On the other hand, if you’re like many patients that haven’t been to a dentist in over 5 years because of fear of pain, it’s time to face your fears and find that perfect (or nearly perfect) dentist! Brushing and flossing alone are no substitute for regular checkups with a dentist. These checkups can prevent heart attacks, strokes and other medical conditions! While some people don’t enjoy going to the dentist’s office, if you follow these steps then finding an oral health care provider that is right for you may not be too difficult after all.

In this blog you will find some helpful tips for finding a great dentist in Shelby Township

Finding a good dentist can be tricky. You want someone who is skilled, caring, and affordable. But where to look? What should you ask? And how much does this cost anyway? Read on for some tips! I’m not kidding, this is probably the most important post you will ever read. I know how it feels to have a mouth full of cavities and feel like no one can help me. You want to be able to smile with confidence and that starts with your teeth! This blog post will provide you with some helpful information on how to find a good dentist so that your dental health doesn’t stay in jeopardy for any longer than necessary. We’re going to take a look at some factors that make up what makes someone great, then we’ll list out some dentists who are worth checking out. Ready? Let’s go!

A Personal Decision

If the thought of going to the dentist makes you anxious, you are in good company. But your dentist is your partner in oral health. Routine dental checkups and treatment by a dentist can help keep your teeth, mouth and gums healthy and prevent dental disease. And poor oral health can contribute to other health risks including cardiovascular disease. How do you find the best dentist who is right for you? Here are some important factors to keep in mind.

Get Referrals from Family, Friends and other Healthcare Providers

Get started by creating a list of potential dentists. To do this, ask family, friends, and other healthcare providers for recommendations. Take the time to research the dentists’ credentials and experience on As you narrow down your list, call each dentist’s office and ask for a consult appointment to meet and interview the dentist.

• Ask your friends, family or co-workers. Chances are one of them has a great dentist they can recommend.
• Ask your doctor or a pharmacist. Members of the medical community often know one another.
• If you are moving, ask your current dentist for a recommendation. They might know somebody in the town or area you are moving to.
• Visit the American Dental Association (ADA) website.

After you have a few recommendations for a new dentist, you may want to call or visit more than one of them. Again, your relationship with your dentist is very important, so make sure you are a good fit for one another.

Check Google Reviews & Read Both Good & Bad Reviews

If you check out the offices with the most reviews on their Google Business page in the city you are located you will typically find those offices have been around the longest and have a reputation, good or bad.  See how the office responds to the reviews, and the overall theme of what patients (your neighbors, family & friends) are saying about the office.

Research the Dentist’s Credentials

Board certification is one of the most important factors to consider when you are choosing a dentist. It tells you that the dentist has the necessary training, skills and experience to provide healthcare in general dentistry. Also confirm that the dentist has no history of malpractice claims or disciplinary actions. You can find the dentist’s medical school, training hospital, certifications, and malpractice and disciplinary history on and state websites.

Consider the Dentist’s Experience

When facing an oral health condition, experience matters. The more experience a dentist has with a condition or procedure, the better your results are likely to be. Additional training is essential for dental specialties like orthodontics and endodontics. Ask how many patients with your specific condition the dentist has treated. If you suffer from dental anxiety, ask the dentist about successful approaches he or she has used with other anxious patients. If you know you need a specific procedure, ask how many of the procedures the dentist has performed and find out about complication rates—complications the dentist has encountered as well as your own risk of complications.

June 15, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Are You Brushing your Teeth Properly?


Shelby Charter Township, MI Dentist

Don’t let your teeth become vulnerable to cavities and decay. Brush them the right way with practical tips from Dr. Timothy Roney, DDS & Associates that protect you for many years to come. 

Many people are surprised to learn that, for years, they have actually been brushing their teeth the wrong way. Brushing your teeth the wrong way may cause oral health problems. Learn how to brush your teeth the right way and you will protect them for many years to come.

Dentist in Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316

The common way people brush their teeth is the back and forth motion, similar to sawing back and forth, until you feel like your teeth are clean and slippery. This is the wrong way to brush your teeth. This motion causes you to scrub away tooth enamel, which will make your teeth sensitive to hot and cold liquids and food much sooner then they normally would be. This sawing motion is very abrasive to your teeth and gums. Over brushing can increase your chances of developing cavities and receding gums. This method also does not clean effectively. Since the bristles are moving back and forth, they are essentially bouncing from one tooth to the next, which causes you to miss the spaces in between the teeth to remove plaque and other tiny particles of food.

So what is the proper way to brush your teeth? Start by placing your toothbrush at a 45 degree angle to where the teeth meet the gums. Then gently move your toothbrush back and forth and making sure the bristles cover each tooth and work their way around the sides of the tooth. This method allows you to find all of the food particles and plaque in the spaces between your teeth. 

The importance of brushing teeth properly is overlooked, but it is an important part of keeping your teeth and gums healthy. Using the right method to brush your teeth will prevent plaque build-up that is harmful and can lead to many oral health problems. Brushing properly will prevent:

  • Gingivitis: a gum disease that develops when there is plaque beneath the gum line and separated the teeth from gums
  • Cavities: permanent damages in the form of tiny hold on the hard surface of the teeth
  • Tooth Decay: damage that occurs when bacteria in your mouth make acids that eat away at a tooth

It’s not easy to relearn brushing after you’ve been using one method. Switching over will take some getting used to, but the results will speak for themselves. If you have any questions regarding the correct method of brushing your teeth, please contact our Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316 dental office.

Timothy Roney & Associates
Phone: (586) 786-6060
5805 24 Mile Rd Suite C
Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316

June 7, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Gum Health and Alzheimer’s Disease


Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316 Dentist
Dental Implant Restorations

Gum Health and Alzheimer’s Disease

Your gum health may have an impact on your cognitive function. One recent study found a correlation between gum disease and increased cognitive decline for people living with early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. While more studies are needed to make a definitive connection, this study illustrates the importance of continuing the conversation about oral health and its impact on your entire body. 

Dentist in Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316

Details of the Study

The study was administered by King’s College London and the University of Southampton. It observed 59 patients with early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Blood tests were utilized to examine inflammatory markers present in the bloodstream, while patients’ dental health was examined by dental hygienists. 

What it Found

The study found that patients with gum disease experienced cognitive decline at a rate 6 times faster than those without gum disease. The study suggested that the body’s reaction to inflammation may be responsible for causing the rapid decrease in brain function.

Importance of Healthy Gums

Previous studies have determined that gum disease can increase your risk of developing complications such as heart disease and stroke. Maintaining healthy gums is essential to staying healthy overall. You can keep your gums healthy by following good daily oral hygiene habits. This includes brushing twice each day for two minutes, as well as flossing regularly.

For those living with Alzheimer’s disease, it is imperative to maintain good oral health. If you are a caregiver of someone with the disease, make sure they are following an effective daily oral hygiene routine, as well as visiting our office for regular examinations. Keeping your gums healthy may be one key to keeping your body and brain healthy throughout your lifetime.

For more information about gum health, or to schedule your next visit to our office, please contact our Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316 dental office.

Timothy Roney & Associates
Phone: (586) 786-6060
5805 24 Mile Rd Suite C


May 11, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

5 Tips for Denture Wearers

5 Tips for Denture Wearers

Taking care of your dentures can seem like an added chore. Don’t worry, with a little effort your dentures can stay clean. Here are 5 tips for keeping your dentures clean and your smile healthy.

Dentist in Shelby Charter Township, MI

1. Rinse Thoroughly

Prior to brushing, it helps to rinse your dentures off.  Run them through water to help wash away food and other small particles. Be extra careful when handling your fragile dentures. Avoid using hot or boiling water, as that could damage your dentures.

2. Clean Your Dentures

Just as you would brush your teeth, your dentures need to be brushed as well. Never use cleaning solutions while your dentures are in. Rather, remove your dentures and carefully brush using a soft toothbrush. Avoid using whitening toothpastes or harsh cleaning materials like bleach products. Talk to our dentist about the right type of cleaner for your dentures. Using too strong a solution can cause damage to your dentures.

3. Don’t Forget to Brush Your Teeth

You still need to take care of your natural teeth. Brush your teeth with a soft toothbrush. Be gentle when brushing and cleaning your gums. Cleaning your gums will help you reduce your risk of developing an oral infection. If your toothbrush is too rough on your gums, an alternative is to use gauze. Be sure to come see us if you are experiencing gum pain and we can make recommendations.

4. Keep Them Covered

When you remove your dentures for bed, be sure to keep them in a covered container overnight. Use a denture-soaking solution to keep them clean overnight. Water works as a substitute, as your dentures need moisture to retain their shape. If you have any questions about storing your dentures, talk to us and we’ll help you.

5. Care with Adhesives

It can sometimes be difficult to remove your dentures with an adhesive. If you are having trouble, try swishing warm water or a mouthwash around your mouth. Never use any cleaning solution, tool, or foreign object to remove your dentures. Take special care to ensure the grooves of your dentures that attach to your gums are clean and free of adhesive. 

When taken care of properly, your dentures will provide you with a lasting smile. Be vigilant in keeping up with cleaning your dentures. If you have any questions about caring for your dentures, get in touch with our office. We would be happy to work with you to figure out a solution for your denture concerns. 

For more tips on keeping your mouth healthy or to schedule your next appointment, contact Shelby Charter Township dentist today.


Timothy Roney & Associates
Phone: (586) 786-6060
5805 24 Mile Rd Suite C

May 1, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

Dental Care Tips While Traveling

Dental Care Tips While Traveling

When you are traveling, it can be challenging to keep up with your usual daily routine. For many people, this can include having difficulty finding the time to properly brush and floss. Whether you are traveling for business or pleasure, we have gathered a few helpful tips to help you stay on track with your oral health while you are away from home. 

Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316 Dentist

Pack Wisely

Be sure you are traveling with enough toothpaste and floss to last your entire trip, if possible. If space is tight, travel sized products can be a great option. You may also wish to purchase a disposable toothbrush for use during your travels. These often require less space and will not cause distress if accidentally left behind. Some disposable toothbrushes even come with toothpaste already applied. These can be ideal for a one-day trip. 

Cover Your Toothbrush

When you travel, you are likely to encounter new and varied germs along the way. Whether you are at a hotel or visiting family, you may be required to share surfaces used by many other people. Consider using a toothbrush cover that slips over the head of your toothbrush to protect it from contact with sinks or nightstands.

Drink Water

One fun part of travel is being able to eat and experiment with new and unusual foods. However, eating and drinking sugary or acidic drinks can be damaging to your teeth. Drinking water is an excellent way to wash away bacteria, as well as helping neutralize the acids that damage tooth enamel. Water also stimulates the flow of saliva, which helps to keep your teeth strong and healthy. 

Don’t Break Your Good Habits

Be sure to continue your daily oral hygiene routine while you travel. This should include brushing for two minutes, twice each day, as well as regular flossing. Traveling can make this difficult to fit in, but doing so will keep your mouth healthy.

Travel can be both fun and stressful. Don’t lose track of time and forget to brush and floss. Your teeth depend on regular, thorough care. After your return, schedule a visit with us. We will provide a comprehensive cleaning and examination while you tell us about your trip.

To schedule your next visit to our office, please contact our Shelby Charter Township, MI dentist team.

Timothy Roney & Associates
Email: [email protected]
Phone: (586) 786-6060
5805 24 Mile Rd Suite C

April 12, 2021 by Admin 0 Comments

One Tool for Better Gum Health


Cosmetic Dentist Near Me


One Tool for Better Gum Health

Loose teeth, bad breath, and painful, bloody gums – these are among the signs and symptoms of periodontal, or gum, disease. Unfortunately, periodontal disease can also begin without any obvious symptoms. If left undiagnosed or untreated, you could be at risk for irreparable damage to your teeth and gums. The good news is that periodontal disease is preventable. In fact, one of the most effective tools for preventing the disease only takes a minute of your time each day.



Floss to the Rescue



Dental floss is an effective and easy to use tool that can be among your best defenses for preventing periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is caused by a buildup of plaque and bacteria. Even if your daily oral hygiene routine already includes a thorough brushing that lasts for two minutes, at least twice each day, you should be flossing daily as well. Dental floss is highly effective at cleaning areas where your toothbrush cannot reach. Small gaps and tight spaces between teeth catch food debris and sugars and acids from drinks all day long. Flossing helps to clean out these tough to reach spaces.



Facts Behind Flossing



According to a survey referenced by the American Dental Association, only 16% of Americans floss each day. The same study showed a clear link between regular intra-oral care and better oral health. Unfortunately, many people also lie about how frequently they clean between their teeth. The study also found that 44% of those surveyed admit they have exaggerated to their dentist about their flossing habits.



Tips for Flossing Correctly



It can be confusing to figure out the best way to use dental floss. Try cutting off about 18 inches of floss and wrapping most of it carefully around your middle finger. Use roughly one inch to clean between each pair of teeth. Using your thumb and index finger, carefully slide the floss between your teeth. Floss to your gum line but be gentle. Avoid cutting your gums. Work your way through your 18 inches of floss by using a new, clean section between each pair of adjacent teeth.



It only takes about a minute to floss your teeth each day, but these minutes contribute to a lifetime of optimal oral health. Floss is among the most effective tools at your disposal to keep your gums clean and healthy. Get into the habit of flossing your teeth regularly – your gums will thank you.



For more information about gum health, or to schedule a visit to our Shelby Charter Township dental office, please contact our team.



Timothy Roney & Associates
Email: [email protected]
Phone: (586) 786-6060
5805 24 Mile Rd Suite C
Shelby Charter Township, MI 48316